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三尺讲台是我的T台。选择了就不后悔,在与教育流氓叫板的呐喊声中像自己手中的粉笔一样,给孩子们描绘美好的未来,自己变成微不足道的粉末。

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英语中几种特殊句式讲练(教师用)(2)  

2015-05-06 18:14:45|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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透视英语中的省略现象

在英语的口头和书面交际中,为了言简意赅,突出关键词语;有时为了避免重复;有时因为语法的客观要求,省略句子中的一个或几个成分,这种现象称为省略。英语中的省略是有一定的原则的,要不破坏语法结构,要保持句子意义的准确无误。英语的省略大致有以下几种情况:

(一)口头和书面语中为了言简意赅进行省略。如:

Nice to meet you!  (It’s nice to meet you. 的省略,省略了主语和be动词)

Lovely weather, isn’t it? (同样省略了主语和be动词)

It’s such fine weather, why not go to swim in the river? (这种省略句比Why do you not go to swim in the river更地道。)

这种省略在使用时似乎需要一定的情景,也就是常和语境搭配。如:

How they are working! (他们工作多起劲啊!)

Your pardon? = I beg your pardon.

Who next? (Who comes next? 的省略,省略了谓语)

Sit down, please! (祈使句主语不需要出现而省略)

在英语中,为了言简意赅省略小品词是一种语法要求。如:

The boss made his men work eighteen hours a day. 该句中的不定式中的to必须省略掉。但是,该结构如果变成被动语态,to又必须加上去。如:

John was made to wash the truck for a week as a punishment. (1991年高考题)

He spent three days doing the work. (动名词前的介词in通常省去)

Excuse me (for) my poor hearing. (动名词前的介词for可省去)

I think (that) physics is a difficult subject. (引导宾语从句的that 常省略)

The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. (定语从句中,关系代词作宾语常省略。)

This is the reason (why) I did it. (定语从句中,关系副词why可省略。)

有时,这种省略在地道的英语中,句子表现得非常特别。如:

Long time no see. (老久不见啦。) 其实等于I haven’t seen you for a long time.

--Does anyone know where Tom lives?

--Me. (相当于I know where Tom lives.

作主语的人称代词I在省略了全部谓语或部分谓语时用宾格形式。

() 口头和书面语中为了避免重复进行省略。如:

Women who drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those who don’t.

这句话中的比较状语从句中,为了避免重复,省略了谓语drink more than two cups of coffee a day。如果不省略,反而表达不妥。再如:

We will do what we can to help fulfill the work in time. (can后省略了谓语do)

The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him not to. 该句省略了不定式中和前文相同的动词原形短语。

Are you a student? Yes, I am. (一般疑问句回答时省略前文出现的成分)

有些动词对下文意思有隐藏的影响,后面的不定式常省略。如:

His answer seems (to be) right.

The theory proved (to be ) true.

We considered him (to be) an honest man.

I find English (to be) easy to learn.

介词but后的不定式和作表语的不定式,它们前面出现了行为动词do的任何形式,还有在andor并列的第二个不定式中一定要省略to

In very cold weather, the hibernating animals have no choice but to lie down to sleep.

In very cold weather, the hibernating animals do not have any choice but to lie down to sleep.

He could do nothing but wait.

All we want to do is inform him of the change of the plan.

I don’t know whether to stay or leave.

不能把英语中的省略形式和替代混为一谈。替代是用替代词代替上文中出现过的词语、短语或句子,其目的也是为了避免重复。如:

The grocer sells ripe bananas, not green ones. (ones替代上文的bananas)

--I hope you enjoyed yourself.

--Yes, I did, thanks.

对话中的did替代上文的enjoyed myself。(yourself 变为myself是行文的需要)

--Will you be able to finish your report today?

--I hope so.  

对话中的so替代上文的句子。sonot常放在think, believe, suppose等动词后面替换句子的一部分或整个句子,是高考的常考点。“I hope not.”和“I don’t think so.”是英语中司空见惯的句子。

(三)在一些特殊的场合,为了节省版面和空间,不是避免重复,也常使用省略。这种省略常用在广告标牌、新闻标题、书面通知等应用文体中。如:

     No Chinese here!  这里禁说汉语。意思相当于No Chinese is spoken here!

     Insert here! 从此插入!(饮料盒上常见的用语)

     Merry Christmas! 圣诞节快乐!意思相当于I wish you merry Christmas!

(四)在表达上为了删繁就简,对从句进行简化而省略。如:

If invited, I will go to his party. (If invited=If I am invited.)

When possible, Mr. Li will ask us some questions in English. (When possible=When it is possible)

Though young, he knows a lo of things. (Though young=Though he is young)

归纳上面三个例句,可以得出这样的结论:如果状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致,状语从句的结构是“从属连词+主语+be动词+其它结构”,状语从句中的“主语+be动词”可省略。如果状语从句的主语和主句的主语不一致,状语从句的结构是“从属连词+it+be动词+其它结构”,状语从句结构中的“it+be动词”可省略。它不同与分词和独立结构作状语的结构;分词和独立结构作状语不是省略,是句法结构的改变。

巩固练习:

一.选择正确答案

1. When ____, the building will be used as a school for children from poor families.

  A. completed      B. completing     C. to be completed     D. is completing

2. In our class Mary’s English is better than ______.

  A. anybody else    B. anybody’s English  C. anybody else’   D. anybody else’s

3. --Does your brother intend to learn to sing this song?

  --Yes, he intends ______.

  A. so            B. to               C. that            D. it

4. We must keep the factory ______ poisonous gases into air.

  A. sending       B. to send           C. from sending     D. send

5.--Susan, go on. Your sister is cleaning the yard.

  --Why ____? John is sitting there doing nothing.

  A. him          B. he               C. I              D. Me

6. If you have a job         yourself to it and finally you’ll succeed.

  A. do devote        B. don't devote       C. devoting         D. not devoting

Keys: ADBCDA

解析:

1. 如果状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致,状语从句的结构是“从属连词+主语+be动词+其它结构”,状语从句中的“主语+be动词”可省略。

2. anybody else’s等于anybody else’s English, 避免English重复。

3.省略和前文相同的动词短语。

4. keep sb doing keep sb from doing是完全不同的结构,不能乱省。

5. 作主语的人称代词I在省略了全部谓语或谓语动词时用宾格形式。

6. 处应是祈使句,又谓语动词的强调要借助助动词。句意为:如果你有了一份工作,付出努力去做它,最后你定能成功。

二.用方框中词或短语的正确形式填空

       hope so    see you    if so    as it is     so he was    compare     unless    question     won’t    isn’t he    Russian    One more hour     have     know    invite

1. Jane won’t join us for dinner tonight and Tom_______, either.   

2. --- What' s the matter with Della?

--- Well, her parents wouldn't allow her to go to the party, but she still ______ .    

3. He must be helping the old man to water the flowers, _______?     

4. We sometimes use the phrase “_______” when saying Good bye to others.

5. Some of us speak English, others _______.

6. Some of you may have finished unit one. ______, you can go on to unit two. 

7. --Did you go to the party?

  --I’d like to _____, but I was too busy

8. It was believed that things would get worse, but _____, they are getting better.

9. ______ and I’ll get the work finished.

10. --He ought to have been warned of the danger.

   --______, but he wouldn’t listen to me. 

11. _____ more words and expressions and you will find it easier to read and communicate.

12. When ______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences, without noticing many similarities.

13. Please do me a favor — ______ my friend Mr. Smith to Youth Theater at 7:30 tonight.

14. ______ invited, I will not go to her birthday party.

15. It is a shame for me to say it, but I told a lie when ______ at the meeting by my boss.

1. won’t 2. hopes to 3. isn’t he 4. See you 5. Russian 6. If so 7. have 8. as it is 9. One more hour

10. So he was 11. Know 12. comparing 13. invite 14. Unless 15. questioned

 

 

 

 

 

 

省略、强调及倒装等特殊句型考查

特殊句型专项考查一

1. Try____ she might, Sue couldn’t get the door open.

A. if            B. when        C. sine         D. as

2. Only when he reached the tea-house ______it was the same place he’d been in last year.

  A. he realized      B. he did realize     C. realized he            D. did he realize

3. -It’s nice. Never before____ such a special drink!

-I’m glad you like it.

A.I have had     B. I had    C. have I had   D. had I

4. Only after they had discussed the matter for a few hours _______a decision 

A. they reached        B. did they reach       C. they reach        D. do they reach

5. Was it on a lonely island _____ he was saved one month after the boat went down?

A. where    B. that     C. which      D. what

6. It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do______ benefits our work most.                                                           

A. who     B. which       C. that      D. what

7.—Have you seem the film Under the Hawthorn Tree?

— Of course, I have. It was in our village _______ it was made.

A. that          B. where        C. when              D. which

8. It’s not what we do once in a while ______ shapes our lives, but what we do consistently

A .which           B. that         C. how        D. when

9. Jane won’t join us for dinner tonight and        .

  A. neither won’t Tom                B. Tom won’t either

  C. Tom will too                     D. so will Tom

10. It sounds like something is wrong with the car’s engine._______ , we’d better take it to the garage immediately.

A. Otherwise     B. If not         C. But for that      D. If so

1—5DDCBB 6—10CABBD

11. _____ a strange plant! I've never seen it before.   

  A. Which        B. What            C. How            D. Whether

12. It doesn’t matter if they want to come to your party, _______?

A. doesn’t it                B. does it                  C. don’t they           D. do they

13. I told them not everybody could run as fast as you did, ______ ?

A. could he        B. didn’t I         C. didn’t you         D. could they

14. It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village _______ the hostess cooked such a nice dinner.

A. where              B. that                C. when             D. which

15. John's success has nothing to do with good luck. It is years of hard work        has made him what he is today.

A. why                B. when               C. which               D. that

16. I have seldom seen my mother _______ pleased with my progress as she is now .

A. so                B. very              C. too              D. rather

17. —I have tried very hard to find a solution to the problem, but in vain. w_w w. k#s5_u.c o*m

   —why not consult with Frank? You see, _________.

A. great minds think alike              B. two heads are better than one

C. a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

D. it’s better to think twice before doing something

18. If you have a job         yourself to it and finally you’ll succeed

Ado devote        Bdon't devote    Cdevoting         Dnot devoting

19. John opened the door . There _____ he had never seen before.    

   A. a girl did stand     B. a girl stood   C. did a girl stand   D. stood a girl

20. The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if         regularly, can improve our health. 

       Abeing carried out    Bcarrying out    Ccarried out             Dto carry out

11—15BBBBD 16—20ABADC

特殊句型专项考查二

1. For a moment nothing happened Then        all shouting together.  

A. voices had come    B. came voices        C. voices would come  D. did voices come

2. Every evening after dinner, if not        from work, I will spend some time walking my dog.

A. being tired                 B. tiring   C. tired        D. to be tired

3. You and I could hardly work together,       ?

A. could you  B. couldn’t I  C. couldn’t we         D. could we

4.Either you or one of your students _____ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow.

A. are      B. is           C. have                        D. be

5. According to statistics, a man is more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer _________ a woman.

A. than             B. such              C. so                D. as 

6 It was _____ he came back from Africa that wear _______ he met the girl he would like to marry. 

A. when; then         B. not; until          C. not until; that       D. only; when 

7. Some of you may have finished unit one. _____ , you can go on to unit two. 

A. If you may        B. If you do          C. If not             D. If so 

8. The computer was used in teaching. As a result, not only _______, but students became more interested in the lessons.

A. saved was teachers’ energy                             B. was teachers’ energy saved

C. teachers’ energy was saved                              D. was saved teachers’ energy

9. So sudden ________that the enemy had no time to escape.  

A. did the attack       B. the attack did       C. was the attack      D. the attack was  

10. He must be helping the old man to water the flowers,     ?            

A. is he              B. isn’t he         C. must he          D. mustn’t he 

1—5BCDBD 6—10CDBCB

11. Little     about her own safety, though she was in great danger herself.

A. did Rose care     B. Rose did care      C. Rose does care     D. does Rose care 

12 —I wonder ________ you’ll water this kind of flower. 

—Every other day. 

A. how often        B. how long          C. how soon       D. how much 

13.Not until I came home last night ________ to bed. 

A. Mum did go      B. did Mum go      C. went Mum        D. Mum went 

14. The teacher together with the students _______ discussing Reading Skills that _______ newly published in America. 

A. are; were         B. is; were          C. are; was        D. is; was 

15. Unsatisfied _________with the payment, he took the job just to get some work experience.

A. though was he       B. though he was      C. he was though       D. was he though 

16. It is often         that human beings are naturally equipped to speak.

A. said              B. to say             C. saying             D. being said

17.—What’s the matter with Della?

—Well, her parents wouldn't allow her to go to the party, but she still _________.

A. hopes to                B. hopes so              C. hopes not              D. hopes for

18.                he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class.

A.A quiet student as he may be                 B. Quiet student as he may be 

C.Be a quiet student as he may                  D. Quiet as he may be a student

19. —What should I do with this passage?

                   the main idea of each paragraph.

A. Finding out         B. Found out             C. Find out                   D. To find out

20.                    that he managed to get the information?

—Oha friend of his helped him.

A. Where was it              B. What was it            C. How was it               D. Why was it

11—15AABDB 16—20AABCC


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