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Module 4 Unit 1 Grammar and Usage的教案  

2015-03-25 12:02:12|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Module 4 Unit 1 Grammar and Usage

Teaching aims:

  Enable the students to learn Direct speech and Report speech.

  Teaching important points:

1. Learn how to use Direct speech and Report speech

  2. Learn the changes between Direct speech and Report speech

Teaching methods:                                    

Explaining and practicing.

Teaching procedures:

Activity 1: Definition

Direct speech (直接引语): 引用原话, 放在引号内,

Report speech (间接引语): 用自己的话进行转述, 被转述的话不放在引号内.

Compare the following sentences:

1. The teacher said, “The earth turns around the sun.”

  The teacher said that the earth turns around the sun.

2. He asks where I come from.

  He asks, “Where do you come from? ”

3. Li Tao said to Miss Green, “Is it made in China? ”

  Li Tao asked Miss Green if / whether it was made in China.

Activity 2: Change Direct speech into Report speech.

直接引语变为间接引语时,在人称、时态、状语、谓语动词等方面都需要根据具体的情况进行变化。

(1)人称变化

     人称代词的变化要根据转述者的立场作适当的改变.

     “I’m fond of surfing the Internet. ” he said.

     He said he was fond of surfing the Internet.

     “You should pay more attention to your pronunciation.” the teacher said.

     The teacher said that I should pay more attention to my pronunciation.

     He said, “Mary was here one week ago.”

     → He said that Mary was there one week before.   

(2)时态变化

如果引述动词为现在时态,间接引语的动词保持原来的时态。

如果引述动词为过去时态,间接引语中的时态变化如下表:

直接引语时态

间接引语时态

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.g.  Tom said to me, “This is the School Computer Center. ”

     → Tom told me that that was the School Computer Center.

     Mary told me, “Lisa is studying abroad. ”

    → Mary told me that Lisa was studying abroad.

    He said to us, “I went to visit her yesterday. ”

    → he told us that he had gone to visit her the day before.

    I asked her, “Where have you spent your holiday? ”

    → I asked her where she had spent her holiday.

下列情况中,直接引语变为间接引语时时态不变:

所转述的是自然现象、科学真理、名言警句、格言谚语等,且说话者对此加以强调。

直接引语中有明确的过去时间状语。

直接引语为一般现在时,表示一种反复出现的或习惯性动作时,时态不变。

 E.g. Our English teacher said, “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. ”

     Our English teacher told us that all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

     He said, “I usually get up at 6:00 and go to school at 8:00. ”

     He said that he usually gets up at 6:00 and goes to school at 8:00.

     The boy said, “The story took place in the 1930s. ”

     → The boy said that the story took place in the 1930s.

     Mr. Li said to us, “You’d better get up early. ”

     → Mr. Li told us that we had better get up early.

(3)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语及方向性动词的变化

 

直接引语

间接引语

指示代词

this

that

these

those

 

 

 

 

  时间状语

now

then

today

that day

this evening

that evening

yesterday

the day before / the previous day

yesterday morning

the morning before

last night

the night before

two days ago

two days before

next week

the next week / the following week

tomorrow

the next day / the following day

the day before

two days before

the day after tomorrow

in two days’ time / two days after

地点状语

here

there

方向性动词

bring

take

come

go

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activity 3: 各种句式的转换

 1)陈述句

   直接引语为陈述句时,转化为间接引语应用that引导(that也可省略);主句动词主要用say, tell, answer, reply, think等。

   The doctor said, “You should eat more vegetables. ”

   → The doctor told me that I should eat more vegetables.

 2)疑问句

   直接引语为一般疑问句或反意疑问句时,转化为间接引语时,应用连词whetherif引导,原句中的谓语动词said要改为asked (me/ him / us ),语序用陈述句语序。

   直接引语为特殊疑问句时,转化为间接引语时,应将原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连接词,主句中的谓语动词要用ask (sb.) 来表达,语序用陈述句语序。

   直接引语为包含请求、建议的疑问句时,转化为间接引语时,可以用ask sb. to do sth., suggest doing advise sb. to do sth. 等结构转述。

 E.g.  He said, “Do you have any difficulty with your math? ”

      He asked (me) whether / if I had any difficulty with my math.

      He asked us, “How many universities have been built in your country? ”

      He asked us how many universities had been built in your country.

      “Would you mind opening the door? ” he asked.

      He asked me to open the door.

直接引语为疑问句时,将其变为间接引语要遵循“一改、二换、三变化、四连词”的原则。

一改:指改变语序;二换:换saidasked;三变化:指人称、时态变化;四连词:即直接引语为一般疑问句时,间接引语中应用连词whetherif引导;直接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语仍用原来的疑问词引导。

 3)祈使句

   直接引语为祈使句时,转化为间接引语应将祈使句的谓语动词变为不定式作宾语不足语。主句动词say须改为ask, tell, order, beg, advise等表示“祈使、命令”的动词;祈使句为否定句时需要在不定式前加上not

   有些表示建议的祈使句需改成“suggest/ advise that... (should)...”结构。

   E.g.  “Don’t be so nervous, John. ” one of them said.

         → One of them told John not to be so nervous.

        He said, “Let’s stay here till the storm has passed. ”

        → He suggested that we should stay here till the storm had passed.

 4)感叹句

直接引语为感叹句时,转化为间接引语可以使用what / how 引导,也可以用that引导。

E.g.  “What a lovely day it is! ” they all shouted.

     → They all said what a lovely day it was.

       They all said how lovely a day it was.

       They all said that it was a lovely day.

课堂检测

将直接引语变为间接引语。

1. “Light travels much faster than sound. ” she said.

2. “The Greens will have a holiday next week. ” he said.

3. She asked, “Why haven’t you had your lunch now? ”

4. “Where are you going for your holiday tomorrow? ”said she.

5. “Don’t forget to lock the door.” the teacher said.

6. “Can you speak Spanish? ” he asked me.

7. “Come to school earlier next time. ” Mr. Hu said to Jim.

8. “Make sure the lights are turned off.” said she.

Key:

1. She said that light travels much faster than sound.

2. He said that the Greens would have a holiday the next week.

3. She asked me why I hadn’t had my lunch then.

4. She asked where I was going for my holiday the next day.

5. The teacher told me not to forget to lock the door.

6. He asked me if / whether I could speak Spanish.

7. Mr. Hu told Jim to go to school earlier the next time.

8. She told me to make sure the lights were turned off.

单项选择   Key: CBCBB   BACDD  AA

1. Can you tell me ___________?

  A who is that gentleman    B the gentleman is who

C who that gentleman is    D whom is that gentleman

2. He doesn’t know _______ to stay at home or play football.

  A if          B whether        C either         D neither

3. The man said that the car ________ by him for ten years by the end of next year.

  A would be driven             B would be driving

  C would have been driven       D would have been driving

4. He said that Jim ________ his homework when his father came in.

  A did        B was doing        C had done         D had been doing

5. “Don’t enter the lab without my permission. ” Mr. Roland said to us.

   Mr. Roland ________ enter the lab without_________.

  A asked us not to ; my permission        B warned us not to ; his permission 

  C advised us not to ; her permission      D said we mustn’t ; your permission 

6. She exclaimed (惊呼) ____________!

  A how difficult the task is       B what a difficult task it was

  C how difficult is the task       D what it was a difficult task

7. Tom Hanks told his teacher that he _________ in 1986.

  A was born       B had been born      C is born       D has born

8. John asked me _________ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.

  A how would I like  B if or not I would like  C whether I would like D which I would like

9. It is reported that many a new house ________ at present in the disaster area.

  A are being built    B were being built    C was being built     D is being built

10. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see _________.

  A who is he       B who he is         C who is it       D who it is

11. He told us he ________ a concert ___________.

  A had attended; three days before      B attended; three days ago

  C would attend; since three days       D was attending; for three days

12. Mrs. Smith warned her daughter _________ after drinking.

  A never to drive      B to never drive    C never driving     D never drive

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